Different concepts for refuelling infrastructure exist that are suitable for different levels of hydrogen demand, from refuelling a single car to large refilling stations able to refuel multiple cars and buses on a daily basis. All hydrogen refuelling stations include the following basic components:

Hydrogen supply: there are two options for hydrogen supply – it can be delivered to the site or it can be generated on-site. 

Hydrogen storage: if hydrogen is delivered as a liquid, a cryogenic storage vessel will be required on the site to maintain the temperature in the liquid range (hydrogen has to be cooled down to -253°C). Hydrogen will be decanted from a tanker truck into the storage vessel.

Aberdeen, Scotland

Project: Hytransit/HighVLOcity

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: BOC, Linde Group

Technology Provider: BOC, Linde Group

Water electrolysis comprises the splitting of water molecules into their constituent parts (H2 and O2) by passage of an electrical current.

Antwerp, Belgium

Project: HighVLOcity

Technology: By-product/hydrogen pipeline

Refuelling station operator: Solvay

Technology Provider: H2 Logic

The vast majority of hydrogen produced worldwide is generated by a process of breaking up hydrocarbon molecules into H2 and CO – this process is called reformation. Reformation is performed on an industrial scale, typically using natural gas (methane, CH4) as a feedstock.

In some specific cases, a hydrogen refuelling station is located nearby or on top of a hydrogen pipeline. In that case,  the hydrogen only needs to be compressed, cooled and dispensed.

Several electrochemical processes in industry, such as the production of chlorine, produce hydrogen as a “waste” or by- product . This by-product is a very clean A-Grade product that is very well suited for fuel cell vehicles and applications.

Bolzano, Italy

Project: CHIC

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: IIT

Technology Provider: BLine

Hydrogen storage: 250 kg

Compressed hydrogen is delivered in a variety of containers, depending on the quantity of hydrogen required.

Brügg, Switzerland

Project: CHIC

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: Air Liquide

Technology Provider: Air Liquide

Hamburg, Germany

Project: CHIC

Technology: 50% Elektrolyser on-site / 50% by-product tube trailer

Refuelling station operator: Vattenfall

Technology Provider: Linde

Liquefaction of hydrogen requires cooling to a temperature of -253 °C and subsequent storage in cryogenic containers. Liquefaction is an energy intensive process and can consume up to 35% of the energy in the stored hydrogen.

Hürt, Cologne Region, Germany

Project: HyCologne

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: Stadtwerke Hürth

Technology Provider: Air Products

Karlsruhe, Germany

Project: KIT

Technology: By-product/tubetrailer

Refuelling station operator: Air Liquide

Technology Provider: Air Liquide

London, UK

Project: CHIC

Technology: Methane, tubetrailers

Refuelling station operator: Air Products

Technology Provider: Air Products

Milan, Italy

Project: CHIC

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: Linde

Technology Provider: Linde

Hydrogen storage: 320 kg

Oslo, Norway

Project: CHIC

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: Air Liquide

Technology Provider: Air Liquide

Stuttgart Flughaven Germany

Project: S-Presso/ National Innovation Platform

Technology: Tube trailer

Refuelling station operator: OMV

Technology Provider: Linde