Hydrogen supply: there are two options for hydrogen supply – it can be delivered to the site or it can be generated on-site. 

Hydrogen storage: if hydrogen is delivered as a liquid, a cryogenic storage vessel will be required on the site to maintain the temperature in the liquid range (hydrogen has to be cooled down to -253°C). Hydrogen will be decanted from a tanker truck into the storage vessel.

Different concepts for refuelling infrastructure exist that are suitable for different levels of hydrogen demand, from refuelling a single car to large refilling stations able to refuel multiple cars and buses on a daily basis. All hydrogen refuelling stations include the following basic components:

Aberdeen, Scotland

Project: Hytransit/HighVLOcity

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: BOC, Linde Group

Technology Provider: BOC, Linde Group

Water electrolysis comprises the splitting of water molecules into their constituent parts (H2 and O2) by passage of an electrical current.

The vast majority of hydrogen produced worldwide is generated by a process of breaking up hydrocarbon molecules into H2 and CO – this process is called reformation. Reformation is performed on an industrial scale, typically using natural gas (methane, CH4) as a feedstock.

Antwerp, Belgium

Project: HighVLOcity

Technology: By-product/hydrogen pipeline

Refuelling station operator: Solvay

Technology Provider: H2 Logic

In some specific cases, a hydrogen refuelling station is located nearby or on top of a hydrogen pipeline. In that case,  the hydrogen only needs to be compressed, cooled and dispensed.

Several electrochemical processes in industry, such as the production of chlorine, produce hydrogen as a “waste” or by- product . This by-product is a very clean A-Grade product that is very well suited for fuel cell vehicles and applications.

Bolzano, Italy

Project: CHIC

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: IIT

Technology Provider: BLine

Hydrogen storage: 250 kg

Brügg, Switzerland

Project: CHIC

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: Air Liquide

Technology Provider: Air Liquide

Compressed hydrogen is delivered in a variety of containers, depending on the quantity of hydrogen required.

Hamburg, Germany

Project: CHIC

Technology: 50% Elektrolyser on-site / 50% by-product tube trailer

Refuelling station operator: Vattenfall

Technology Provider: Linde

Liquefaction of hydrogen requires cooling to a temperature of -253 °C and subsequent storage in cryogenic containers. Liquefaction is an energy intensive process and can consume up to 35% of the energy in the stored hydrogen.

Hürt, Cologne Region, Germany

Project: HyCologne

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: Stadtwerke Hürth

Technology Provider: Air Products

Karlsruhe, Germany

Project: KIT

Technology: By-product/tubetrailer

Refuelling station operator: Air Liquide

Technology Provider: Air Liquide

London, UK

Project: CHIC

Technology: Methane, tubetrailers

Refuelling station operator: Air Products

Technology Provider: Air Products

Milan, Italy

Project: CHIC

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: Linde

Technology Provider: Linde

Hydrogen storage: 320 kg

Oslo, Norway

Project: CHIC

Technology: Elektrolyser on-site

Refuelling station operator: Air Liquide

Technology Provider: Air Liquide

Stuttgart Flughaven Germany

Project: S-Presso/ National Innovation Platform

Technology: Tube trailer

Refuelling station operator: OMV

Technology Provider: Linde