Hydrogen has unique physical and chemical properties which present benefits and challenges to its successful widespread adoption as a fuel.

Fuel Cell Electric Buses are new and have other specifications than traditional diesel buses.

Risk analyses have been worked out to do an inventory of all risks related to these new vehicles for the different daily operations.

Risk reduction measures in the bus:

Safety measures while refuelling at the hydrogen station:

In a building where the bus is located for maintenance, parking or other purposes, the following general rules are applicable:

The ATEX directive, describing what equipment and work environment is allowed in an environment with an explosive atmosphere. There are two ATEX directives (one for the manufacturer and one for the user of the equipment):

HyResponse is a ‘Coordination and Support Action (CSA)’ project supported by EC Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking and aiming to establish the World’s first comprehensive training programme for first responders, i.e. a European Hydrogen Safety Training Platform (EHSTP), to facilitate safer deployment of FCH systems and infrastructure.

Local actors may source match-funding for financing their trial from sponsoring bodies at a regional,national or european level:

 Europan level:

The Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) is making available a total budget of €1.33 billion (2014-2020) to support hydrogen and fuel cell projects in the framework of Horizon 2020

- Another important source of funding is the EU Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) funding framework (formerly TEN-T). The CEF has a multi-billion annual budget and can be used to match-fund hydrogen infrastructures

- Some EU regions may benefit from structural funds (such as European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)) which can be combined with e.g. FCH JU funding under specific circumstance (if they do not cover the same costs)

National level:

- The availability of national funding and the support level (e.g. % of match-finding) varies from country to country, but most EU countries have funding programmes which can be used to support fuel cell bus demonstrations

- For example funding can be sought from the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) in the UK, or the Nationale Organisation Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellentechnologie (NOW) programme in Germany)

Local level:

- EU regions and local authorities also have their own funding programmes, which can be used to co-support local projects and complement national/EU funding
(For example the bus project in Oslo was co-financed locally by the municipality of Oslo and the Akershus County Council)

The EU's Renewable energy directive sets a binding target of 20% final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. To achieve this, EU countries have committed to reaching their own national renewables targets ranging from 10% in Malta to 49% in Sweden. They are also each required to have at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable sources by 2020.

Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system:

The European Commission adopted a roadmap of 40 concrete initiatives for the next decade to build a competitive transport system that will increase mobility, remove major barriers in key areas and fuel growth and employment. At the same time, the proposals will dramatically reduce Europe's dependence on imported oil and cut carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050.

The Clean Power for Transport package aims to facilitate the development of a single market for alternative fuels for transport in Europe and includes two directives:

Low Emission Zones (LEZ) are being introduced in cities across Europe to help improve local air quality by encouraging owners of the most polluting vehicles to clean up exhaust emissions. LEZs are areas where the most polluting vehicles are regulated. Usually this means that vehicles with higher emissions cannot enter the area. In some low emission zones the more polluting vehicles have to pay more if they enter the low emission zone. All low emission zones affect heavy duty goods vehicles (usually over 3.5 tonnes Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)), and most affect buses and coaches. 

EU environmental policy focusses on developing and implementing a clean air policy framework that reinforces national policies for those aspects of the air quality problem that Member States cannot handle effectively or efficiently alone.

Standard is a document that sets out requirements for a specific item, material, component, system or service, or describes in detail a particular method or procedure.

Code is a document that describes the end-result – what a product should conform to- rather than how it should be done.

Codes and standards are not mandatory- they are optional - in contrast to regulations that are mandatory.

Codes and standards on European level are developed and issued by CEN (European Committee for Standardization) or CENELEC (European committee for Electro-technical Standardization).

On the international level, their counterparts are ISO (International Standards Organization) and IEC (the International Electro-technical Commission). 

Within these organisations, the preparation of the standards belongs to the TC’s (technical committees) that work on the basis of national participation by the CEN members (NSB’s - National Standardization Body). The real standard development is done by a WG (working group).  A working group is established by the technical committee to undertake a specific task within a target date.

CEN and ISO, and CENELEC and IEC work closely together, as is arranged by the Vienna Agreement established in 1991 and revised in 2001.

The most relevant TC’s for hydrogen and its applications within CEN/CENELEC and ISO/IEC and the relevant regulations are: